Independent self-confident adolescents, according to Baumrind and colleagues (1991), are most likely to have parents who are:
The Correct Answer is A.
Baumrind and her colleagues distinguish between authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and rejecting-neglecting parents. The authoritative style is most likely to produce independent self-confident children and adolescents. Authoritative parents combine rational control with warmth, receptivity, and the encouragement of independence. It's very likely you'll encounter a question on these styles on the exam, so be familiar with their characteristics and effects, which are described in the written study materials.
Answer B: Authoritarian parents impose absolute standards of control, stress obedience, and are willing to use force to obtain compliance. Their children tend to be insecure, anxious, and dependent and display a limited sense of responsibility.
Answer C: Permissive parents provide their children with few controls or demands and display moderate levels of warmth. Their children exhibit little self-reliance, exploratory behavior, or self-control.
Answer D:"Traditional" is not a parenting style identified by Baumrind.